SMART STUFF

articles to check out

Social Determinants of Health/Systemic Racism and Health Outcomes

  • Jones CP. Systems of power, axes of inequity: parallels, intersections, braiding the strands [published correction appears in Med Care. 2014 Dec;52(12):1068]. Med Care. 2014;52(10 Suppl 3):S71-S75.

  • Jones CP, Jones CY, Perry GS, Barclay G, Jones CA. Addressing the social determinants of children's health: a cliff analogy. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2009;20(4 Suppl):1-12.

  • Jones CP, Truman BI, Elam-Evans LD, et al. Using "socially assigned race" to probe white advantages in health status. Ethn Dis. 2008;18(4):496-504.

  • Seneque, ME. Racism in Healthcare: Alive and Well: The Greatest Barrier to Reform. iUniverse; 2010.

  • Greenwood BN, Hardeman RR, Huang L, Sojourner A. Physician–patient racial concordance and disparities in birthing mortality for newborns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - PNAS. 2020;117(35):21194-21200.

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNhcY6fTyBM

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=to7Yrl50iHI

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3aXoBfmSBNQ

Botox and Sarcopenia

  • Graham, K, Multani, I, Hastings-Ison, T, et al. Sarcopenia, botulinum toxin a and cerebral palsy: a systematic review: F4. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 61 Supplement 3:33, October 2019.

  • Multani I, Manji J, Tang MJ, Herzog W, Howard JJ, Graham HK. Sarcopenia, Cerebral Palsy, and Botulinum Toxin Type A. JBJS reviews. 2019;7(8):e4-.

  • Tedroff K, Granath F, Forssberg H, Haglund-Akerlund Y. Long‐term effects of botulinum toxin A in children with cerebral palsy. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 2009;51(2):120-127.​

Movement System

Cultures of Intervention

Participation

  • Ko IH, Kim JH, Lee BH. Relationships between lower limb muscle architecture and activities and participation of children with cerebral palsy. J Exerc Rehabil. 2013 Jun 30;9(3):368-74.

  • Ramstad K, Jahnsen R, Skjeldal OH, Diseth TH. Parent-reported participation in children with cerebral palsy: the contribution of recurrent musculoskeletal pain and child mental health problems. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54(9):829-835. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04341.

Pain and CP

  • Pain hurts worldwide: non‐verbal children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, April 2016, Vol.58(4), pp.328-328.

  • Jayanath, S, Choo, OL, Marret, MJ, Fauzi, AA. Parent‐reported pain in non‐verbal children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12943.

  • Parkinson, KN, Gibson, L, Dickinson, HO, Colver, AF. Pain in children with cerebral palsy: a cross‐sectional multicentre European study. Acta Paediatr 2010; 99: 446– 51.

  • Parkinson, KN, Dickinson, HO, Arnaud, C, Lyons, A, Colver, A, SPARCLE group. Pain in young people aged 13 to 17 years with cerebral palsy: cross‐sectional, multicentre European study. Arch Dis Child 2013; 98: 434– 40.

  • Characteristics of pain in children and youth with cerebral palsy. Penner, Melanie ; Xie, Wen Yan ; Binepal, Navneet ; Switzer, Lauren ; Fehlings, Darcy, Pediatrics, August 2013, Vol.132(2), pp.e407-13.

  • Parent‐reported participation in children with cerebral palsy: the contribution of recurrent musculoskeletal pain and child mental health problems. Ramstad, Kjersti ; Jahnsen, Reidun ; Skjeldal, Ola H ; Diseth, Trond H. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, September 2012, Vol.54(9), pp.829-835

  • Chronic pain, fatigue, and depressive symptoms in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy. Van Der Slot, Wilma M A ; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah ; Van Den Berg‐Emons, Rita J G ; Bergen, Michael P ; Hilberink, Sander R ; Stam, Henk J ; Roebroeck, Marij E. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, September 2012, Vol.54(9), pp.836-842.

  • Characteristics of recurrent musculoskeletal pain in children with cerebral palsy aged 8 to 18 years. Ramstad, Kjersti ; Jahnsen, Reidun ; Skjeldal, Ola H ; Diseth, Trond H. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, November 2011, Vol.53(11), pp.1013-1018.

  • Associations between recurrent musculoskeletal pain and visits to the family doctor (GP) and specialist multi‐professional team in 74 Norwegian youth with cerebral palsy. Ramstad, K. ; Jahnsen, R. ; Diseth, T. H. Child: Care, Health and Development, September 2016, Vol.42(5), pp.735-741.

  • An evidence-informed approach to the identification and assessment of chronic pain in children with cerebral palsy
    Townley, A. ; Kingsnorth, S. ; Orava, T. ; Provvidenza, C. Journal of Pain, April 2015, Vol.16(4), pp.S3-S3

  • Disabil Rehabil. 2018 Jun 11:1-8. Evaluating pain in cerebral palsy: comparing assessment tools using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Schiariti V, Oberlander TF.

Patient-Centered Care, Therapeutic Alliance and PNE

  • Child Life Council Evidence-Based Practice Statement. Child Life Council Executive Board, November 2007.

  • Van Der Slot WM, Nieuwenhuijsen C, Van Den Berg-Emons RJ, et al. Chronic pain, fatigue, and depressive symptoms in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy [published correction appears in Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 Nov;54(11):1064]. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54(9):836-842.

  • Brun-Cottan ND, McMillian D Pt DOCS, Hastings J Pt PNCS. Defending the art of physical therapy: Expanding inquiry and crafting culture in support of therapeutic alliance. Physiother Theory Pract 2018:1-10.3:1-10.

  • Miciak M, Mayan M, Brown C, et al. A framework for establishing connections in physiotherapy practice. Physiother Theory Pract 2019;35:40-56.

  • Hall AM, Ferreira PH, Maher CG, Latimer J and Ferreira ML. The influence of the therapist-patient relationship on treatment outcome in physical rehabilitation: a systematic review. Phys Ther. 2010; 90: 1099-110.

  • Babatunde F, MacDermid J, MacIntyre N. Characteristics of therapeutic alliance in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and occupational therapy practice: a scoping review of the literature. BMC Health Serv Res 2017;17:375.

  • Louw A, Zimney K, Puentedura EJ, Diener I. The efficacy of pain neuroscience education on musculoskeletal pain: A systematic review of the literature. Phsyiother Theory Pract. 2016; 32: 332-55.

  • Lakke SE, Meerman S. Does working alliance have an influence on pain and physical functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain; a systematic review. Journal of Compassionate Health Care. 2016;3(1).

  • Ferreira PH, Ferreira ML, Maher CG, et al. The therapeutic alliance between clinicians and patients predicts outcome in chronic low back pain. Phys Ther 2013;93:470-478.

  • Pinto RZ, Ferreira ML, Oliveira VC, et al. Patient-centred communication is associated with positive therapeutic alliance: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 2012;58:77-87.

  • Von Piekartz H, Mohr G. Reduction of head and face pain by challenging lateralization and basic emotions: a proposal for future assessment and rehabilitation strategies. J Man Manip Ther. Feb 2014;22(1):24-35.

  • Fuentes J, Armijo-Olivo S, Funabashi M, et al. Enhanced therapeutic alliance modulates pain intensity and muscle pain sensitivity in patients with chronic low back pain: an experimental controlled study. Phys Ther 2014;94:477-489.

  • Louw A. Treating the brain in chronic pain. In: C FdlP, J C, Dommerholt J, eds. Manual Therapy for Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes. Vol 1. London: Churchill Livingston; 2015

  • Melzack R.  Evolution of the neuromatrix theory of pain. The Prithvi Raj Lecture: presented at the third World Congress of World Institute of Pain, Barcelona 2004. Pain Pract. 2005 Jun;5(2):85-94.

  • O'Keeffe M, Cullinane P, Hurley J, Leahy I, Bunzli S, O'Sullivan PB, O'Sullivan K. What Influences Patient-Therapist Interactions in Musculoskeletal Physical Therapy? Qualitative Systematic Review and Meta-Synthesis. Phys Ther. 2016 May;96(5):609-22.

  • Crum, Alia J., and Ellen J. Langer. 2007. Mind-set matters: Exercise and the placebo effect. Psychological Science 18, no. 2: 165-171. https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/3196007.

 “Tone”

  • Willerslev-Olsen M, Lorentzen J, Sinkjaer T, Nielsen JB. Passive muscle properties are altered in children with cerebral palsy before the age of 3 years and are difficult to distinguish clinically from spasticity. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013 Jul;55(7):617-23.

  • De Gooijer-van de Groep KL, de Vlugt E, de Groot JH, et al. Differentiation between non-neural and neural contributors to ankle joint stiffness in cerebral palsy. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 2013;10:81.

  • Hollmann L, Halaki M, Kamper S., Haber M, Ginn K. Does muscle guarding play a role in range of motion loss in patients with frozen shoulder? Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. 2018;37:64-68. doi:10.1016/j.msksp.2018.07.001

  • Singer B., Dunne J., Singer K., Allison G. Velocity dependent passive plantarflexor resistive torque in patients with acquired brain injury. Clinical biomechanics (Bristol). 2003;18(2):157-165.

  • Harlaar J, Becher JG, Snijders CJ, Lankhorst GJ. Passive stiffness characteristics of ankle plantar flexors in hemiplegia. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2000 May;15(4):261-70.

  • Dietz V, Sinkjaer T. Spastic movement disorder: impaired reflex function and altered muscle mechanics. Lancet neurology. 2007;6(8):725-733.

  • de Vlugt E, de Groot JH, Schenkeveld KE, Arendzen Jh, van der Helm FC, Meskers CG. The relation between neuromechanical parameters and Ashworth score in stroke patients. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation. 2010;7(1):35-35.

  • Shortland. Architecture of the medial gastrocnemius in children with spastic diplegia. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002.

  • Hagglund. Spasticity of the gastrocsoleus muscle is related to the development of reduced passive dorsiflexion of the ankle in children with cerebral palsy Acta Orthop 2011.

 

Ankle​​​

  • Warfel JH. The Extremities : Muscles and Motor Points . 6th ed. Lea & Febiger; 1993.

  • Kendall FP. Muscles : Testing and Function with Posture and Pain. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.

  • Netter FH (Frank H, Machado CAG, Hansen JT, Benninger B, Brueckner JK, Netter FH. Atlas of Human Anatomy . Seventh edition. Elsevier; 2019.

  • Krzak JJ, Corcos DM, Damiano DL, Graf A, Hedeker D, Smith PA, Harris GF. Kinematic foot types in youth with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegia. Gait Posture. 2015 Feb;41(2):402-8.

  • Jarvis HL, Nester CJ, Bowden PD, Jones RK. Challenging the foundations of the clinical model of foot function: further evidence that the root model assessments fail to appropriately classify foot function. Journal of foot and ankle research. 2017;10(1):7-.

  • Harradine, P, et al. If It Doesn’t Work, Why Do We Still Do It? The Continuing Use of Subtalar Joint Neutral Theory in the Face of Overpowering Critical Research. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 48, no. 3, 2018, pp. 130–132.

  • Kurashige T. Accessory anterolateral talar facet impingement with tibialis spastic varus foot. SAGE open medical case reports. 2017;5:2050313X1774521-.

  • Niki H, Aoki H, Hirano T, Akiyama Y, Fujiya H. Peroneal spastic flatfoot in adolescents with accessory talar facet impingement: a preliminary report. Journal of pediatric orthopaedics B. 2015;24(4):354-361.

  • Gretchen B Salsich, Michael J Mueller, Shirley A Sahrmann. Passive Ankle Stiffness in Subjects With Diabetes and Peripheral Neuropathy Versus an Age-Matched Comparison Group. Physical Therapy. 2000;80(4):352-362.

  • Feger MA, Snell S, Handsfield GG, et al. Diminished Foot and Ankle Muscle Volumes in Young Adults With Chronic Ankle Instability. Orthop J Sports Med. 2016;4(6):2325967116653719. Published 2016 Jun 16.

  • Mason-Mackay, A.R, Whatman, C, Reid, D. The effect of reduced ankle dorsiflexion on lower extremity mechanics during landing: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2017;20(5):451-458. d

  • Fong, Chun-Man, Blackburn, J Troy, Norcross, Marc F, Mcgrath, Melanie, Padua, Darin A. Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion and landing biomechanics. Journal of athletic training. 2011;46(1):5-10.

  • Lebleu, J, Mahaudens, P, Pitance, L, et al. Effects of ankle dorsiflexion limitation on lower limb kinematic patterns during a forward step-down test: A reliability and comparative study. Journal Of Back And Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation. 2018;31(6):1085-1096.

  • Lorenzo-Sánchez-Aguilera C, Rodríguez-Sanz D, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Lázaro-Navas I, Plaza-Rodríguez J, Navarro-Santana M, Pecos-Martín D. Neuromuscular Mechanosensitivity in Subjects with Chronic Ankle Sprain: A Cross-Sectional Study. Pain Med. 2019 Jan 14.​

  • Eichelberger P, Blasimann A, Lutz N, Krause F, Baur H. A minimal markerset for three-dimensional foot function assessment: measuring navicular drop and drift under dynamic conditions. Journal of foot and ankle research. 2018;11(1):15-10.

  • Roth S, Roth A, Jotanovic Z, Madarevic T. Navicular index for differentiation of flatfoot from normal foot. International orthopaedics. 2013;37(6):1107-1112.

ROM & Manual Therapy

  • Kim S-L, Lee B-H. The Effects of Posterior Talar Glide and Dorsiflexion of the Ankle Plus Mobilization with Movement on Balance and Gait Function in Patient with Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. 2018;9(1):61-67.

  • Capobianco RA, Almuklass AM, Enoka RM. Manipulation of sensory input can improve stretching outcomes. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018 Feb;18(1):83-91.

  • Silveira F, Teixeira L, Nogueira L. The effect of manipulative manual therapy, in improving range of motion and reducing the intensity of pain in subjects with ankle sprain – A systematic review. Manual Therapy. 2016;25:e132-e133.

  • Yoon JY, Hwang YI, An DH, Oh JS. Changes in kinetic, kinematic, and temporal parameters of walking in people with limited ankle dorsiflexion: pre-post application of modified mobilization with movement using talus glide taping. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2014 Jun;37(5):320-5.

  • Weerasekara I, Osmotherly P, Snodgrass S, Marquez J, de Zoete R, Rivett DA. Clinical Benefits of Joint Mobilization on Ankle Sprains: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Jul;99(7):1395-1412.e5.

  • Lee J, Kim JO, Lee BH. The effects of posterior talar glide with dorsiflexion of the ankle on mobility, muscle strength and balance in stroke patients: a randomised controlled trial. J Phys Ther Sci. 2017 Mar;29(3):452-456.

  • Kang MH, Oh JS, Kwon OY, Weon JH, An DH, Yoo WG. Immediate combined effect of gastrocnemius stretching and sustained talocrural joint mobilization in individuals with limited ankle dorsiflexion: A randomized controlled trial. Man Ther. 2015 Dec;20(6):827-34.

  • Johanson MA, DeArment A, Hines K, Riley E, Martin M, Thomas J, Geist K. The effect of subtalar joint position on dorsiflexion of the ankle/rearfoot versus midfoot/forefoot during gastrocnemius stretching. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 Jan;35(1):63-70.

  • Kwon OY, Weon JH, An DH, Yoo WG. Immediate combined effect of gastrocnemius stretching and sustained talocrural joint mobilization in individuals with limited ankle dorsiflexion: A randomized controlled trial. Man Ther. 2015. Dec;20(6):827-34.

  • An, C., & Jo, S. (2017). Effects of Talocrural Mobilization with Movement on Ankle Strength, Mobility, and Weight-Bearing Ability in Hemiplegic Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 26(1), 169–176.

  • Marrón-Gómez, D., Rodríguez-Fernández, Á., & Martín-Urrialde, J. (2015). The effect of two mobilization techniques on dorsiflexion in people with chronic ankle instability. Physical Therapy in Sport, 16(1), 10–15.

  • Vicenzino, B., Branjerdporn, M., Teys, P., & Jordan, K. (2006). Initial changes in posterior talar glide and dorsiflexion of the ankle after mobilization with movement in individuals with recurrent ankle sprain. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 36(7), 464–471.

  • Chevutschi, A., D’Houwt, J., Pardessus, V., & Thevenon, A. (2015). Immediate effects of talocrural and subtalar joint mobilization on balance in the elderly. Physiotherapy Research International : the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy, 20(1), 1–8.

  • Stanek J, Sullivan T, Davis S. Comparison of Compressive Myofascial Release and the Graston Technique for Improving Ankle-Dorsiflexion Range of Motion. J Athl Train. 2018 Feb;53(2):160-167.

  • Grieve R, Cranston A, Henderson A, John R, Malone G, Mayall C. The immediate effect of triceps surae myofascial trigger point therapy on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion in recreational runners: a crossover randomised controlled trial. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2013.

  • Capobianco RA, Almuklass AM, Enoka RM. Manipulation of sensory input can improve stretching outcomes. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018 Feb;18(1):83-91.

  • Capobianco RA, Mazzo MM, Enoka RM. Self-massage prior to stretching improves flexibility in young and middle-aged adults. J Sports Sci. 2019 Feb 4:1-8.

Tissue Properties

  • Mueller MJ, Maluf KS. Tissue adaptation to physical stress: a proposed "Physical Stress Theory" to guide physical therapist practice, education, and research. Phys Ther. 2002 Apr;82(4):383-403.

  • Frost HM. A 2003 update of bone physiology and Wolff's Law for clinicians. Angle Orthod. 2004;74(1):3-15.

  • Kjaer M, Langberg H, Heinemeier K, Bayer ML, Hansen M, Holm L, Doessing S, Kongsgaard M, Drogsgaard MR, Magnusson SP. Form mechanical loading to collagen synthesis, structural changes and function in human tendon. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009.

  • Magnusson SP, Langberg H, Kjaer M. The pathogenesis of tendinopathy: balancing the response to loading. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010 May;6(5):262-8.

  • Smith LR, Lee KS, Ward SR, Chambers HG, Lieber RL. Hamstring contractures in children with spastic cerebral palsy result from a stiffer extracellular matrix and increased in vivo sarcomere length.J  Physiol2011;589: 2625–39

  • Smith LR, Ponten E, Hedstrom Y, et al. Novel transcriptional profile in wrist muscles from cerebral palsy patients.BMC Med Genom2009;2: 44.

  • Martín Lorenzo T, Rocon E, Martínez Caballero I, Ramírez Barragán A, Lerma Lara S. Prolonged stretching of the ankle plantarflexors elicits muscle-tendon adaptations relevant to ankle gait kinetics in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Med Hypotheses. 2017 Nov;109:65-69. 

  • Nahm NJ, Graham HK, Gormley ME Jr, Georgiadis AG. Management of hypertonia in cerebral palsy. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2018 Feb;30(1):57-64. 

  • Stojadinovic O, Gordon KA, Lebrun E, Tomic-Canic M. Stress-Induced Hormones Cortisol and Epinephrine Impair Wound Epithelization. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2012 Feb;1(1):29-35. Review. 

  • Svehlík M, Zwick EB, Steinwender G, Kraus T, Linhart WE. Dynamic versus fixed equinus deformity in children with cerebral palsy: how does the triceps surae muscle work? Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Dec;91(12):1897-903. 

  • Wren TA, Do KP, Kay RM. Gastrocnemius and soleus lengths in cerebral palsy equinus gait--differences between children with and without static contracture and effects of gastrocnemius recession. J Biomech. 2004 Sep;37(9):1321-7. 

  • Wren TA, Cheatwood AP, Rethlefsen SA, Hara R, Perez FJ, Kay RM. Achilles tendon length and medial gastrocnemius architecture in children with cerebral palsy and equinus gait. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Jul-Aug;30(5):479-84. 

  • Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2003 Feb;18(2):157-65. Velocity dependent passive plantarflexor resistive torque in patients with acquired brain injury. Singer BJ1, Dunne JW, Singer KP, Allison GT.

  • Takahashi M, Ward SR, Marchuk LL, Frank CV, Lieber RL. Asynchronous muscle and tendon adaptation after surgical tensioning procedures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92(3): 664-674.

  • Magnusson SP, Langberg H, Kjaer M. The pathogenesis of tendinopathy: balancing the response to loading. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010 May;6(5):262-8.

Stairs

  • Lewerenz A, Wolf SI, Dreher T, Krautwurst BK. Performance of stair negotiation in patients with cerebral palsy and stiff knee gait. Gait & posture. 2019;71:14-19.

 

Gait

  • Perry J, Burnfield JM. Gait Analysis : Normal and Pathological Function . 2nd ed. SLACK; 2010.

  • Buldt, Andrew K., Murley, George S., Butterworth, Paul, Levinger, Pazit, Menz, Hylton B., Landorf, Karl B. The relationship between foot posture and lower limb kinematics during walking: A systematic review. Gait Posture. 2013;38(3):363-372.

  • Pinto, R., Souza, T., Trede, R., Kirkwood, R., Figueiredo, E., & Fonseca, S. (2008). Bilateral and unilateral increases in calcaneal eversion affect pelvic alignment in standing position. Manual Therapy, 13(6), 513–519.

  • Ghanbari, A., Razeghi, M., Yazdani, F., Ebrahimi, S., & Abbasi, L. (2013). The effect of subtalar hyperpronation on the pelvic alignment during stance phase of walking. Gait & Posture (Vol. 38, pp. S116–S116). Elsevier B.V.

  • Klotz MC, Wolf SI, Heitzmann D, Maier MW, Braatz F, Dreher T. The association of equinus and primary genu recurvatum gait in cerebral palsy. Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Jun;35(6):1357-63.

  • Kruger KM, Konop KA, Krzak JJ, Graf A, Altiok H, Smith PA, Harris GF. Segmental kinematic analysis of planovalgus feet during walking in children with cerebral palsy. Gait Posture. 2017 May;54:277-283.

  • Gor-García-Fogeda MD, Cano de la Cuerda R, Carratalá Tejada M, Alguacil-Diego IM, Molina-Rueda F. Observational Gait Assessments in People With Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016;97(1):131-140. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2015.07.018

  • Daly JJ, Nethery J, McCabe JP, et al. Development and testing of the Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.): a measure of coordinated gait components. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;178(2):334-339. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2008.12.016

  • David KS, Sullivan M. Expectations for Walking Speeds: Standards for Students in Elementary Schools. Pediatric physical therapy. 2005;17(2):120-127.

  • Fritz S, Lusardi M. White paper: Walking speed: the sixth vital sign. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2009;32(3):110]. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2009;32(2):46-49.

  • Rose J, Gamble JG, Lee J, Lee R, Haskell WL. The energy expenditure index: a method to quantitate and compare walking energy expenditure for children and adolescents. J Pediatr Orthop. 1991;11(5):571-578.

 

ROM & Manual Therapy

  • Kim S-L, Lee B-H. The Effects of Posterior Talar Glide and Dorsiflexion of the Ankle Plus Mobilization with Movement on Balance and Gait Function in Patient with Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. 2018;9(1):61-67.

  • Capobianco RA, Almuklass AM, Enoka RM. Manipulation of sensory input can improve stretching outcomes. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018 Feb;18(1):83-91.

  • Silveira F, Teixeira L, Nogueira L. The effect of manipulative manual therapy, in improving range of motion and reducing the intensity of pain in subjects with ankle sprain – A systematic review. Manual Therapy. 2016;25:e132-e133.

  • Yoon JY, Hwang YI, An DH, Oh JS. Changes in kinetic, kinematic, and temporal parameters of walking in people with limited ankle dorsiflexion: pre-post application of modified mobilization with movement using talus glide taping. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2014 Jun;37(5):320-5.

  • Weerasekara I, Osmotherly P, Snodgrass S, Marquez J, de Zoete R, Rivett DA. Clinical Benefits of Joint Mobilization on Ankle Sprains: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Jul;99(7):1395-1412.e5.

  • Lee J, Kim JO, Lee BH. The effects of posterior talar glide with dorsiflexion of the ankle on mobility, muscle strength and balance in stroke patients: a randomised controlled trial. J Phys Ther Sci. 2017 Mar;29(3):452-456.

  • Kang MH, Oh JS, Kwon OY, Weon JH, An DH, Yoo WG. Immediate combined effect of gastrocnemius stretching and sustained talocrural joint mobilization in individuals with limited ankle dorsiflexion: A randomized controlled trial. Man Ther. 2015 Dec;20(6):827-34.

  • Johanson MA, DeArment A, Hines K, Riley E, Martin M, Thomas J, Geist K. The effect of subtalar joint position on dorsiflexion of the ankle/rearfoot versus midfoot/forefoot during gastrocnemius stretching. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 Jan;35(1):63-70.

  • Kwon OY, Weon JH, An DH, Yoo WG. Immediate combined effect of gastrocnemius stretching and sustained talocrural joint mobilization in individuals with limited ankle dorsiflexion: A randomized controlled trial. Man Ther. 2015. Dec;20(6):827-34.

  • An, C., & Jo, S. (2017). Effects of Talocrural Mobilization with Movement on Ankle Strength, Mobility, and Weight-Bearing Ability in Hemiplegic Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 26(1), 169–176.

  • Marrón-Gómez, D., Rodríguez-Fernández, Á., & Martín-Urrialde, J. (2015). The effect of two mobilization techniques on dorsiflexion in people with chronic ankle instability. Physical Therapy in Sport, 16(1), 10–15.

  • Vicenzino, B., Branjerdporn, M., Teys, P., & Jordan, K. (2006). Initial changes in posterior talar glide and dorsiflexion of the ankle after mobilization with movement in individuals with recurrent ankle sprain. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 36(7), 464–471.

  • Chevutschi, A., D’Houwt, J., Pardessus, V., & Thevenon, A. (2015). Immediate effects of talocrural and subtalar joint mobilization on balance in the elderly. Physiotherapy Research International : the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy, 20(1), 1–8.

  • Stanek J, Sullivan T, Davis S. Comparison of Compressive Myofascial Release and the Graston Technique for Improving Ankle-Dorsiflexion Range of Motion. J Athl Train. 2018 Feb;53(2):160-167.

  • Grieve R, Cranston A, Henderson A, John R, Malone G, Mayall C. The immediate effect of triceps surae myofascial trigger point therapy on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion in recreational runners: a crossover randomised controlled trial. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2013.

  • Capobianco RA, Almuklass AM, Enoka RM. Manipulation of sensory input can improve stretching outcomes. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018 Feb;18(1):83-91.

  • Capobianco RA, Mazzo MM, Enoka RM. Self-massage prior to stretching improves flexibility in young and middle-aged adults. J Sports Sci. 2019 Feb 4:1-8.

 

Foot Core!

  • Okamura, K, Kanai, S, Hasegawa, Mi, Otsuka, A, Oki, S. The effect of additional activation of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles on foot dynamics during gait. Foot. 2018;34:1-5.

  • Riddick R, Farris DJ, Kelly LA. The foot is more than a spring: human foot muscles perform work to adapt to the energetic requirements of locomotion. Journal of the Royal Society interface. 2019;16(150): 20180680-.

  • Mulligan EP, Cook PG. Effect of plantar intrinsic muscle training on medial longitudinal arch morphology and dynamic function. Manual therapy. 2013;18(5):425-430.

  • Huffer D, Hing W, Newton R, Clair M. Strength training for plantar fasciitis and the intrinsic foot musculature: A systematic review. Physical Therapy in Sport. 2016;24:44-52.

  • McKeon PO, Hertel J, Bramble D, Davis I. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015;49(5):290-290.

 

Motor Learning

  • Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott MH. Motor Control : Translating Research into Clinical Practice . Fifth edition. Wolters Kluwer; 2017.

  • Kandel ER et al. Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2013.

  • Piccoli A, Rossettini G , Cecchetto S, et al. Effect of Attentional Focus Instructions on Motor Learning and Performance of Patients with Central Nervous System and Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Systematic Review. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2018;3(3):40-0.

  • Rotem-Lehrer N & Laufer Y (2007). Effect of focus of attention on transfer of a postural control task following an ankle sprain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther; 37(9): 564:569.

  • Schmidt RE, Lee TH. Motor control and learning: a behavioral emphasis. Champain, IL: Human Kinetics, 2005.

  • Adolph KE, Franchak JM. The development of motor behavior. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci. 2017;8(1-2):10.1002/wcs.1430.

  • Stenekes, MW, et al. (2009). Effects of motor imagery on hand function during immobilization after flexor tendon repair." Arch Phys Med Rehabil 90(4): 553-559.

  • Meugnot, A, et al. (2014). The embodied nature of motor imagery processes highlighted by short-term limb immobilization. Exp Psychol 61(3): 180-186.

  • Bassolino, M, et al. (2014). Training the motor cortex by observing the actions of others during immobilization. Cereb Cortex 24(12): 3268-3276.

  • Crum, Alia J., and Ellen J. Langer. 2007. Mind-set matters: Exercise and the placebo effect. Psychological Science 18, no. 2: 165-171. https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/3196007.

  • Wulf G, Lewthwaite R. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychon Bull Rev. 2016;23(5):1382-1414.

  • Kuhn YA, Keller M, Ruffieux J, Taube W. Adopting an external focus of attention alters intracortical inhibition within the primary motor cortex. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2017 Jun;220(2):289-299. doi: 10.111

  • Pascua LA, Wulf G, Lewthwaite R. Additive benefits of external focus and enhanced performance expectancy for motor learning. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(1):58-66. doi:10.1080/02640414.2014.922693 1/apha.12807. Epub 2016 Oct 17. PMID: 27653020; PMCID: PMC5484339.

  • Piccoli A, Rossettini G , Cecchetto S , Viceconti A, Ristori D , Turolla A, Maselli F and Testa M.  Effect of Attentional Focus Instructions on Motor Learning and Performance of Patients with Central Nervous System and Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Systematic Review. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2018(3), 40:1-20

  • Kuhn YA, Keller M, Ruffieux J, Taube W. Intracortical Inhibition Within the Primary Motor Cortex Can Be Modulated by Changing the Focus of Attention. J Vis Exp. 2017 Sep 11;(127):55771. doi: 10.3791/55771. PMID: 28930973; PMCID: PMC5752204.

 

Neuroplasticity

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  • Falling C, Mani R. Ageing and obesity indices influences the tactile acuity of the low back regions: A cross-sectional study. Manual therapy. Jun 2016;23:25-31.

  • Moseley GL. I can't find it! Distorted body image and tactile dysfunction in patients with chronic back pain. Pain. Nov 15 2008;140(1):239-243.

  • Maihöfner C, Handwerker HO, Neundörfer B, Birklein F. Patterns of cortical reorganization in complex regional pain syndrome. Neurology. December 23, 2003 2003;61(12):1707-1715.

  • Flor H. The functional organization of the brain in chronic pain. Prog Brain Res. 2000;129:313-322.

  • Wand, bm, Parkitny, L, O’connell, NE, et al. Cortical changes in chronic low back pain: Current state of the art and implications for clinical practice. Manual Therapy. 2011;16(1):15-20.

  • Moseley GL, Gallagher L, Gallace A.  Neglect-like tactile dysfunction in chronic back pain. Neurology. 2012 Jul 24;79(4):327-32.

  • Toussaint, L. and A. Meugnot (2013). Short-term limb immobilization affects cognitive motor processes. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 39(2): 623-632.

Tissue Stress Training

  • Alfredson H, Pietila T, Jonsson P, Lorentzon R. Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:360–366.

  • Kulig K, Reischl SF, Pomrantz AB, Burnfield JM, Mais-Requejo S, Thordarson DB, Smith RW. Nonsurgical management of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with orthoses and resistive exercise: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2009;89(1):26-37

  • Alvarez RG, Marini A, Schmitt C, Saltzman CL.Stage I and II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction treated by a structured nonoperative management protocol: an orthosis and exercise program. Foot Ankle Int. 2006;27(1):2-8.

  • Silbernagel KG. Does one size fit all when it comes to exercise treatment for Achilles tendinopathy? J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44(2):42-4.

  • Silbernagel KG, Crossley KM. A Proposed Return-to-Sport Program for Patients With Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: Rationale and Implementation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2015;45(11):876-86.

Orthoses

  • Liu XC, Embrey D, Tassone C, et al. Long-Term Effects of Orthoses Use on the Changes of Foot and Ankle Joint Motions of Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy. PM R. 2017 Sep 1. Pii: S1934-1482(17)30004-7.

  • Owen E. The importance of being earnest about shank and thigh kinematics especially when using ankle-foot orthoses. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2010 Sep;34(3):254-69.

  • Kerkum YL, Houdijk H, Brehm M-A, et al. The Shank-to-Vertical-Angle as a parameter to evaluate tuning of Ankle-Foot Orthoses. Gait & posture. 2015;42(3):269-274.

  • Jagadamma KC, Coutts FJ, Mercer TH, et al. Effects of tuning of ankle foot orthoses-footwear combination using wedges on stance phase knee hyperextension in children with cerebral palsy – Preliminary results. Disability and rehabilitation: Assistive technology. 2009;4(6):406-413.

  • Aboutorabi A, Arazpour M, Ahmadi Bani M, Saeedi H, Head JS. Efficacy of ankle foot orthoses types on walking in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2017 Nov;60(6):393-402.

  • Carmick J. Importance of orthotic subtalar alignment for development and gait of children with cerebral palsy.Pediatr Phys Ther. 2012 Winter;24(4):302-7.

  • Desmyttere G, Hajizadeh M, Bleau J, Begon M. Effect of foot orthosis design on lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics during walking in flexible pes planovalgus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2018 Nov;59:117-129. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2018.09.018. Epub 2018 Sep 13. Review.

  • Eddison N, Mulholland M, Chockalingam N. Do research papers provide enough information on design and material used in ankle foot orthoses for children with cerebral palsy? A systematic review. J Child Orthop. 2017 Aug 1;11(4):263-271.

  • Kane K, Manns P, Lanovaz J, Musselman K. Clinician perspectives and experiences in the prescription of ankle-foot orthoses for children with cerebral palsy. Physiother Theory Pract. 2019 Feb;35(2):148-156.

Upper Extremity

  • Ho, Emily S., et al. "Serial casting and splinting of elbow contractures in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy." The Journal of hand surgery 35.1 (2010): 84-91.

  • Lannin N A, Novak I, Cusick A. A systematic review of upper extremity casting for children and adults with central nervous system motor disorders. Clinical Rehabilitation 2007; 21(11): 963-976.

  • Zhao J, Zhang T, Xu J, Wang M, Zhao S. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of brain function reorganization in cerebral stroke patients after constraint-induced movement therapy. Neural Regeneration Research. 2012;7(15):1158-1163.

  • Sung, In-Young et al. Efficacy of Forced-Use Therapy in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , Volume 86 , Issue 11 , 2195 - 2198

  • Moseley, Anne M., et al. "Serial casting versus positioning for the treatment of elbow contractures in adults with traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial." Clinical Rehabilitation 22.5 (2008): 406-417.

  • Yarkony GM, Sahgal V. Contractures: a major complication of craniocerebral trauma. Clin Orthop 1987; 219: 93—96.

  • O'Dwyer N., Ada L. Reflex hyperexcitability and muscle contracture in relation to spastic hypertonia. Curr Opin Neurol 1996; 9: 980—83.

  • Goga-Eppenstien P., Hill J., Philip PA, Philip M., Seifert TM, Yasukawa AM Casting protocols for the upper and lower extremities. Aspen, 1999.

  • Gracies JM Pathophysiology of impairment in patients with spasticity and use of stretch as a treatment of spastic hypertonia. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2001; 12: 747—68.  

  • Yasukawa A., Malas BS, Gaebler-Spira DJ Efficacy for maintenance of elbow range of motion of two types of orthotic devices: a case series. J Prosthet Orthot 2003; 15: 72—77.

  • Wilton JC Splinting and casting in the presence of neurological dysfunction. In Wilton JC. ed. Hand splinting: principles of design and fabrication. WB Saunders, 1997: 168—97.

  • King TI Plaster splinting as a means of reducing elbow flexor spasticity: a case study . Am J Occup Ther 1982; 36: 671—73.  

  • Gossman MR, Sahrmann SA, Rose SJ Review of length-associated changes in muscle. Phys Ther 1982; 62: 671—73.

  • Kottke FJ, Pauley DL, Ptak RA The rationale for prolonged stretching for correction of shortening of connective tissue. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1966; 47: 345—52.  

  • Edwards S. Neurological physiotherapy, second edition. Churchill Livingstone, 2002.

  • Phillips B., Ball, C., Sackett, D., et al. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine. Accessed 8 January 2007 from: http://www.cebm.net/levels_of_evidence.asp

  • American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). AACPDM Methodology for Developing Systematic Reviews of Treatment Interventions. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, 2004.

  • Bandolier. Bias. Bandolier. 2000 Oct; 80—82. Accessed 8 January 2007 from: http://www.jr2.0x.ac.uk/bandolier/band80/b80—2.html

  • Khan KS, Ter Riet G., Glanville J., Sowden AJ, Kleijnen J. for the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD). Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness. CRD's guidance for carrying out or commissioning reviews. CRD Report No. 4. NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York; 2000.

  • Moseley AM, Maher C., Herbert RD, Sherrington C. Reliability of a scale for measuring the methodological quality of clinical trials. Cochrane Colloquium 1999, Rome, Italy; 1999: 39.

  • Keech AC, Wonders SM, Cook DI, Gebski VJ Balancing the outcomes: reporting adverse events. Med J Aust 2004; 181: 215—18.  

  • Moseley A., Herbert R., Harvey L., Hassett L., Clare J., Leung J. Clinical trial of stretching after traumatic brain injury: Final report. Motor Accidents Authority, 2006.

  • Law M., Cadman D., Rosenbaum P., Walter S., Russell D., DeMatteo C. Neurodevelopmental therapy and upper extremity inhibitory casting for children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991; 33: 379—87.  

  • Boyd RN, Graham HR Current evidence for the use of botulinum toxin type A in the management of children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Eur J Neurol 1997; 8: s1—s20.

  • Law M., Russell D., Pollock N., Rosenbaum P., Walter S., King G. A comparison of intensive neurodevelopmental therapy plus casting and a regular occupational therapy program for children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997; 39: 664—70. Crossref,  

  • Herbert RD, Jamtvedt G., Mead J., Hagen KB Practical evidence-based physiotherapy. Elsevier, 2005.

  • Dumholdt E. Physical therapy research: Principles and applications, second edition. WB Saunders Company, 2000.

  • Ottenbacher KL, Barrett KA Statistical conclusion validity of rehabilitation research: A quantitative analysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1990; 69: 102—107.  

  • Copley J., Watson-Will A., Dent K. Upper limb casting for clients with cerebral palsy: a clinical report. Aust Occup Ther J 1996; 43: 39—50.

  • Hill J. The effects of casting on upper extremity motor disorders after brain injury . Am J Occup Ther 1994; 48: 219—24.  

  • Steer V. Upper limb serial casting of an individual with cerebral palsy: a preliminary report. Aust Occup Ther J 1989; 36: 69—77.

  • Lehmkuhl LD , Thoi LL, Baize C., Kelley CJ, Krawczyk L., Bontke CF Multimodal treatment of joint contractures in patients with severe brain injury: cast, effectiveness and integration of therapies in the application of serial/inhibitive casts. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1990; 5: 23—42.

  • Kitson A. Inhibitive casting for the upper limb. Aust J Physiother 1988; 34: 113.

  • Mills V. Electromyographic results of inhibitory splinting. Phys Ther 1984; 64: 190—93.  

  • Cruickshank DA, O'Neill D. Upper extremity inhibitive casting in a boy with spastic quadriplegia. Am J Occup Ther 1990; 44: 552—55.  

  • Childers MK BS, Petruski G., Mervealle C. Inhibitory casting decreases a vibratory inhibition index of the H-reflex in the spastic upper limb. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 714—16.  

  • Tona JL, Schneck CM The efficacy of upper extremity inhibitive casting: a single subject pilot study. Am J Occup Ther 1993; 47: 901—10.  

  • Yasukawa A. Upper extremity casting: adjunct treatment for a child with cerebral palsy. Am J Occup Ther 1990; 44: 840—46.  

  • Yasukawa A., Hill J. Casting to improve upper extremity functions. In Boehme R ed. Improving upper body control. Therapy Skill Builders, 1988: 165—88.

  • McClure PW, Blackburn LG, Dusold C. The use of splints in the treatment of joint stiffness: Biologic rationale and an algorithm for making clinical decisions. Phys Ther 1994; 74: 1101—107.  

  • Pohl M., Ruckreim S., Mehrholz J., Ritschel C., Strik H., Pause MR Effectiveness of serial casting in patients with severe cerebral spasticity: a comparison study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 784—90.  

  • Robson C. Real world research. Blackwell Publishers, 1993.

  • Mortenson PA, Eng JJ The use of casts in the management of joint mobility and hypertonia following brain injury in adults: a systematic review. Phys Ther 2003; 83: 648—53.  

  • Leong B. Critical review of passive muscle stretch: implications for the treatment of children in vegetative and minimally conscious states. Brain Inj 2002; 16: 169—83.  

  • Teplicky R. , Law M., Russell D. The effectiveness of casts, orthoses, and splints for children with neurological disorders. Infants Young Children 2002; 15: 42—50.

  • Autti-Ramo I SJ, Anttila H., Malmivaara A., Makela M. Effectiveness of upper and lower limb casting and orthoses in children with cerebral palsy: an overview of review articles . Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2006; 85: 89—103.  

  • Bertoti DB Effect of short leg casting on ambulation in children with cerebral palsy . Phys Ther 1986; 66: 1522—29.  

  • McNee AE, Will E., Lin JP, Eve LC, Gough M., Morrissey MC, Shortland AP The effect of serial casting on gait in children with cerebral palsy: preliminary results from a crossover trial. Gait Posture 2007; 25: 463—68.  

  • Moseley AM The effect of casting combined with stretching on passive ankle dorsiflexion in adults with traumatic head injuries. Phys Ther 1997; 77: 240—47.  

  • Blackmore AM , Boettcher-Hunt E., Jordan M., Chan Mdy. A systematic review of the effects of casting on equinus in children with cerebral palsy. American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, 2006.

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  • Ada L., Canning C. Anticipating and avoiding muscle shortening. In Ada L, Canning C. eds. Key issues in neurological physiotherapy. Butterworth-Heinemann , 1990: 219—36.

  • Harthun Smith L., Harris SR Upper extremity inhibitive casting for a child with cerebral palsy. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr, 1985: 5: 71—79.

  • MacKay-Lyons M. Low-load, prolonged stretch in treatment of elbow flexion contractures secondary to head trauma: a case report. Phys Ther 1989: 69: 292—96.

  • Langhorne P, Coupar F, Pollock A. Motor recovery after stroke: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol. 2009;8(8):741–754.

  • Brunner IC, Skouen JS, Strand LI. Recovery of upper extremity motor function post stroke with regard to eligibility for constraint-induced movement therapy. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2011;18(3):248–257. 

  • Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, et al. Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke. JAMA. 2006;296(17):2095–2104.

  • Taub E, Uswatte G, King DK, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of constraint-induced movement therapy for upper extremity after stroke. Stroke. 2006;37(4):1045–1049.

  • Page SJ, Levine P, Leonard A, et al. Modified constraint- induced therapy in chronic stroke: Results of a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2008;88(3):333–340. 

  • Shi YX, Tian JH, Yang KH, et al. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy versus traditional rehabilitation in patients with upper-extremity dysfunction after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(6):972–982.

  • Sheng B, Lin M. A longitudinal study of functional magnetic resonance imaging in upper-limb hemiplegia after stroke treated with constraint-induced movement therapy. Brain Inj. 2009;23(1):65–70. 

  • Wu CY, Hsieh YW, Lin KC, et al. Brain reorganization after bilateral arm training and distributed constraint-induced therapy in stroke patients: a preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Chang Gung Med J. 2011;33(6):628–637​